Scientists have attempted to test the association between anabolic steroids and aggression by administering high steroid doses or placebo for days or weeks to human volunteers and then asking the people to report on their behavioral symptoms. To date, four such studies have been conducted. In three, high steroid doses did produce greater feelings of irritability and aggression than did placebo, although the effects appear to be highly variable across individuals. In one study, the drugs did not have that effect. One possible explanation, according to the researchers, is that some but not all anabolic steroids increase irritability and aggression. Recent animal studies show an increase in aggression after steroid administration.
Many people who have gallstones will experience no symptoms. However, if the gallstones are blocking a bile duct, symptoms can occur. People who experience prolonged pain that lasts for more than five hours, nausea and vomiting, fever, chills, yellowish skin or yellow discoloration of the whites of the eyes, or clay-colored stools may be experiencing a gallbladder attack. These attacks can sometimes follow fatty meals or happen at night. Anyone experiencing these symptoms should see a doctor immediately as these can be an indication of a large gallstone or other condition.
Once more, an early study done on S-4 provided proof of full muscle regeneration in volunteers with with degenerative disorders without the use of exercise and the minimum dosage of 3mg/kg/day. Changes can be seen anywhere from 1-2 weeks. This was the very first study classified S-4 as CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT by improving skeletal muscle strength, lean body mass, and a reduction in body fat [Chen et al., 2005; Gao et al., 2005; Kearbey et al., 2007]. Unfortunately, there are always some side effects that arise when using Because S-4 is a ligand by definition, the side effects will never be permanent even at supraphysiological dosages and can be easily avoided through proper dosing.