Kempthorne uses the randomization-distribution and the assumption of unit treatment additivity to produce a derived linear model , very similar to the textbook model discussed previously. [30] The test statistics of this derived linear model are closely approximated by the test statistics of an appropriate normal linear model, according to approximation theorems and simulation studies. [31] However, there are differences. For example, the randomization-based analysis results in a small but (strictly) negative correlation between the observations. [32] [33] In the randomization-based analysis, there is no assumption of a normal distribution and certainly no assumption of independence . On the contrary, the observations are dependent !

2015Dec14: New ANNOVAR version is available. The major change is to enable multi-threaded ANNOVAR for gene, region and filter annotation. Use an argument such as -thread 6 to turn on multi-threading with 6 CPU cores. Special thanks to S/W R&D Center, Device Solutions at SAMSUNG for proposing the changes and demonstrating the performance using Samsung 830 SSD drives. I re-implemented their algorithm, and confirmed that >10 fold speed improvement for filter annotation for genomes can be achieved even in a Seagate HDD RAID-6 array.