COUMADIN is contraindicated in women who are pregnant except in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, who are at high risk of thromboembolism, and for whom the benefits of COUMADIN may outweigh the risks [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. COUMADIN can cause fetal harm. Exposure to warfarin during the first trimester of pregnancy caused a pattern of congenital malformations in about 5% of exposed offspring. Because these data were not collected in adequate and well-controlled studies, this incidence of major birth defects is not an adequate basis for comparison to the estimated incidences in the control group or the . general population and may not reflect the incidences observed in practice. Consider the benefits and risks of COUMADIN and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing COUMADIN to a pregnant woman.
Laws and Penalties: Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).
If streptokinase (SK) or anistreplase (APSAC) is used, heparin should be given only in those patients who are at high risk for systemic emboli (. large anterior MI, atrial fibrillation, previous embolus, or known LV thrombus) (See standard dosage). Heparin should not be given <= 4 hours after fibrinolytic therapy and should be given when the aPTT is < 70 (goal aPTT 50—70 seconds). After 48 hours, consideration may be given to subcutaneous heparin administration (initial dose about 17,500 Units every 12 hours to maintain aPTT —2 times control), LMWH, or oral anticoagulants. If the patient has no risk factors and SK or APSAC is the thrombolytic that was used, therapeutic heparin is not recommended.