Typically, any athlete who tests positive for banned substances after having served a previous ban receives a lifetime ban from the sport of athletics. Many high-profile sportspeople to receive doping bans have come from the sport of athletics, with significant past cases concerning Ben Johnson , Marion Jones and Tim Montgomery . Furthermore, a number of athletes who underwent state-sponsored doping programmes in East Germany between the 1960s and 1980s were competitors in athletics, but the quality of the international anti-doping work was so poor that only one East German athlete ever tested positive.  Following allegations of state-sponsored doping in Russia , the IAAF suspended the country's athletes from competition, including the 2016 Summer Olympics.
In another study (reported in the October 15, 2005 issue of CID ), Adriana Campa, PhD, from Florida International University and colleagues found that % of 119 HIV positive, mostly homeless drugs users in Miami showed evidence of HIV-related wasting. In this study, wasting was associated with cocaine and heavy alcohol use, "food insecurity" (not eating for one or more days in the past month), and higher HIV viral load. Participants taking HAART were more likely to experiencing wasting than those not receiving anti-HIV treatment (86% vs 67%).